top of page

Jackie Robinson and the Science of Rainbows

On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB). He played for the Brooklyn Dodgers and broke the color barrier that had existed in professional baseball for over 50 years. Robinson's arrival in MLB was a significant moment in American history and paved the way for other African Americans to play professional sports.

Before Robinson's debut, baseball was segregated, and African Americans were only allowed to play in the Negro Leagues. Robinson's success in the minor leagues led to his signing with the Dodgers and his historic debut in MLB. However, his arrival was met with opposition from fans, other players, and even some of his own teammates. Despite the racism and discrimination he faced, Robinson persevered and had a successful career in baseball. He was a six-time All-Star, won the National League Most Valuable Player award in 1949, and helped lead the Dodgers to six National League pennants and one World Series championship. Robinson's impact went beyond baseball, as he became a symbol of the Civil Rights Movement and an inspiration to many.

Robinson's legacy continues to be celebrated, and his number 42 has been retired by all MLB teams in his honor. In 1997, MLB also established the annual Jackie Robinson Day to honor his achievements and promote diversity and inclusion in baseball.

Rainbows Only Being Seen 42 Degrees from the Sun

Rainbows are one of nature's most beautiful and fascinating phenomena. They occur when sunlight is refracted, or bent, as it passes through raindrops. This causes the different colors of light to separate, creating a colorful arc in the sky. One interesting fact about rainbows is that they can only be seen at a certain angle from the sun. Specifically, rainbows are only visible at an angle of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the sun. This means that if you are standing with your back to the sun, the rainbow will form a circle with the center directly opposite the sun and the edges at an angle of 42 degrees.

The reason for this specific angle has to do with the way that light is refracted as it passes through raindrops. The angle of 42 degrees is the angle at which light is refracted by the raindrop at just the right amount to create the rainbow.

Both Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier and the specific angle of 42 degrees for viewing rainbows are significant and interesting parts of history and science, respectively. They both serve as reminders of the power of perseverance, the importance of diversity and inclusion, and the wonders of the natural world.


  1. "Jackie Robinson Biography.", A&E Television Networks, 17 Nov. 2021,

  2. "Jackie Robinson's Legacy." Major League Baseball,, 16 Apr. 2021,

  3. Minnaert, Marcel G. J. The nature of light and colour in the open air. Courier Corporation, 1954.

  4. "Rainbow." Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 26 Feb. 2020,


bottom of page